Property Modulation of Zinc Oxide through Doping

Property Modulation of Zinc Oxide through Doping is a research of the factors of insulator performance. The eight obtained results in the present work and conclusions are as follows.

Property Modulation of Zinc Oxide through Doping:
Semi conductors are of technological importance and attracted many of the re-searchers. Zn O belongs to the family of II-VI semiconductors and has material properties well suitable to UV light emitters, varistors, Schottky diodes, gas sensors, spintronics, ferroelectric devices and thin film transistors. It has been considered as a competitor to GaN, which belongs to the family of III-V semiconductors. This is due to the fact that ZnO of high quality can be deposited at lower growth temperatures than GaN, leading to the possibility of transparent junctions on less expensive substrates such as glass. This will lead to low-cost UV lasers with important applications in high-density data storage systems etc. One of the most popular growth techniques of ZnO is physical sputtering. As compared to sol-gel and chemical-vapor deposition, the magnetron sputtering is a preferred method because of its simplicity and low operating temperatures. Hence, detailed investigations were carried out on undoped and doped ZnO thin films primarily deposited by magnetron sputtering.

The obtained results in the present work of Property Modulation of Zinc Oxide through Doping:
A brief discussion on the crystal structure of ZnO material and its possible applications in the different areas such as Schottky diodes, spintronics, ferroelectric devices and thin film transistors are presented.

This chapter deals with various deposition techniques used in the present study. It includes the magnetron sputtering, thermal oxidation, pulsed-laser ablation and sol-gel technique. The experimental set up details and the deposition procedures are described in detail i.e., the deposition principle and the parameters that will affect the film properties. A brief note on the structural characterization equipments namely, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and the optical characterization equipments namely, transmission spectroscopy is presented. The transport properties of the films were studied which include Dielectric studies, impedance studies, device characterization and are discussed.

The optimization of ZnO thin films for Schottky diode formation and The characterization of various Schottky diodes is presented in this chapter. P-type conductivity in ZnO was implemented by the variation of partial pressure of oxygen during the sputtering and are discussed. A method to achieve low series resistance hetero-junction was achieved using thermal oxidation method and the detailed transport properties were studied. The optical investigation carried out on the ZnO thin films under various growth conditions are also presented.

This chapter deals with the processing, structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Mn doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser ablation. Structural investigations have shown that the Mn incorporation increases the c-axis length due to the relatively larger ionic size of the Mn ions. Studies conducted both at low and high concentration region of Zn1?xMnxO thin films showed that the films are anti-ferromagnetic in nature. The transport measurements revealed that the electrical conductivity is dominated by the presence of shallow traps. Optical investigations suggested the absence of midgap absorption and confirm the uniform distribution of Mn in wurtzite structure.

Carrier induced ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO thin films were studied and the results are presented in this chapter. High density targets were prepared by solid state reaction process and the thin films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation technique. Two compositions were studied and it was found that with increase in substrate temperature, c-axis length decreases. Optical studies suggested a strong mid gap absorption around 2eV and could be attributed to the d-d transitions of tetrahedral coordinated Co2+. The presence of ferromagnetism in these films makes them potential candidates for spintronics applications.

It has been reported in literature that o?-centered polarization will drive ferroelectric phase transition. Motivated by such results, substitution of Lithium in ZnO was studied in detail. The structural and electrical properties were investigated over a wide range of composition (0-25%). The ferroelectric studies were carried out both in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) configuration and are presented in this chapter. The appearance of Ferro electricity in these films makes them potential candidates for ferroelectric memory devices.

This chapter describes the studies conducted on Mg doped ZnO: Thin films grown by multi-magnetron sputtering. The hexagonal phases of the films were evaluated. All the films exhibited c-axis preferred orientation towards (002) orientation. Micro structural evolutions of the films were carried out through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Ferroelectric properties were investigated in both metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) configurations. It was observed that the Mg concentration increases the band gap and the details on optical investigations are also presented in this chapter.

ZnO based thin film transistors have been fabricated and characterized using ZnO as active channel layer and Mg doped ZnO as dielectric layer. Excellent leakage properties of the gate dielectric were studied and presented in this chapter. These studies demonstrated that Mg doped ZnO thin films are suitable candidates for gate dielectric applications.

Conclusions of Property Modulation of Zinc Oxide through Doping: This section presents the conclusions derived out of the present work. Property Modulation of Zinc Oxide through Doping also includes a few suggestions on future work on this material.

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